Thursday, May 21, 2020

Coordination Number Definition in Chemistry

The coordination number of an atom in a molecule is the number of atoms bonded to the atom. In chemistry and crystallography, the coordination number describes the number of neighbor atoms with respect to a central atom. The term was originally defined in 1893 by Swiss chemist Alfred Werner (1866–1919). The value of the coordination number is determined differently for crystals and molecules. The coordination number can vary from as low as 2 to as high as 16. The value depends on the relative sizes of the central atom and ligands and by the charge from the electronic configuration of an ion. The coordination number of an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion is found by counting the number of atoms bound to it (note: not by counting the number of chemical bonds). Its more difficult to determine chemical bonding in solid-state crystals, so the coordination number in crystals is found by counting the number of neighboring atoms. Most commonly, the coordination number looks at an atom in the interior of a lattice, with neighbors extending in all directions. However, in certain contexts crystal surfaces are important (e.g., heterogeneous catalysis and material science), where the coordination number for an interior atom is the bulk coordination number and the value for a surface atom is the surface coordination number. In coordination complexes, only the first (sigma) bond between the central atom and ligands counts. Pi bonds to the ligands are not included in the calculation. Coordination Number Examples Carbon has a coordination number of 4 in a methane (CH4) molecule since it has four hydrogen atoms bonded to it.In ethylene (H2CCH2), the coordination number of each carbon is 3, where each C is bonded to 2H 1C for a total of 3 atoms.The coordination number of a diamond is 4, as each carbon atom rests at the center of a regular tetrahedron formed by four carbon atoms. Calculating the Coordination Number Here are the steps for identifying the coordination number of a coordination compound. Identify the central atom in the chemical formula. Usually, this is a transition metal.Locate the atom, molecule, or ion nearest the central metal atom. To do this, find the molecule or ion directly beside the metal symbol in the chemical formula of the coordination compound. If the central atom is in the middle of the formula, there will be neighboring atoms/molecules/ions on both sides.Add the number of atoms of the nearest atom/molecule/ions. The central atom may only be bonded to one other element, but you still need to note the number of atoms of that element in the formula. If the central atom is in the middle of the formula, youll need to add up the atoms in the entire molecule.Find the total number of nearest atoms. If the metal has two bonded atoms, add together both numbers, Coordination Number Geometry There are multiple possible geometric configurations for most coordination numbers. Coordination Number 2—linearCoordination Number 3—trigonal planar (e.g., CO32-), trigonal pyramid, T-shapedCoordination Number 4—tetrahedral, square planarCoordination Number 5—square pyramid (e.g., oxovanadium salts, vanadyl VO2), trigonal bipyramid,  Coordination Number 6—hexagonal planar, trigonal prism, octahedralCoordination Number 7—capped octahedron, capped trigonal prism, pentagonal bipyramidCoordination Number 8—dodecahedron, cube, square antiprism, hexagonal bipyramidCoordination Number 9—three-face centered trigonal prismCoordination Number 10—bicapped square antiprismCoordination Number 11—all-faced capped trigonal prismCoordination Number 12—cuboctahedron (e.g., Ceric ammonium nitrate -(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How Rfid Can Revolutionize Supply Chain Management

9/24/2014 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT RFID technology is an emerging technology that has the potential to revolutionise supply chain management Anoop Kamboj (GMAY14IT066) S P JAIN SCHOOL OF GLOBAL MANAGEMENT Table of Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2 How RFID can revolutionize supply chain management? ............................................................................. 2 Problems related to RFID .............................................................................................................................. 4 Conclusion†¦show more content†¦It provides accurate data regarding the flow of product to both retailer and manufacturer. This further enables the improvement of each stage of supply chain. Another alternative available is bar code but due to certain limitations, RFID is a better bet and hence the popularity has increased. The greatest use of RFID can be found in the area of supply chain management where the whole process can be automated and controlled. RFID can improve the supply chain process to a great extent in spite of the technological and social difficulties faced by the end user. RFID can help the implementation of the innovative processes like the Supply chain event management, corporate planning, forecasting and replenishment. RFID accelerates the processes of Supply Chain but at the same time increase the requirements between suppliers and retailers. How RFID can revolutionize supply chain management? RFID enables the process improvements in each stage of the supply chain and revolutionize the process as a whole. Dissecting the processes involved in the supply chain, the importance and the impact of RFID on roles can be discussed below as: Production Control: In production, each item is given its own RFID tag. This tag contains an EPC (Electronic product code) which contains the relevant product information like batch id, serial no. , expiry date etc.

Business Unit 3 Constraints of Marketing Free Essays

Constraints of marketing Legal aspects There are four legal aspects that can limit and constrain your marketing, these are the sales of goods act 1979, and this law means that all products must be ‘as described’ of ‘a reasonable quality’ and be suitable for everyday purpose and also any specific purpose agreed. E. g. We will write a custom essay sample on Business Unit 3 Constraints of Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now a waterproof coat must be waterproof. Another legal aspect is the trade descriptions act this means that a product cannot be sold by misleading the buyer, in the way the product was made, what it is made of or where and when it was made. E. g. You cannot say something is handmade if it is not, and a hair dryer made for drying hair, must actually dry hair. The consumer credit act 2002 protects consumer’s rights when they buy goods on credit. Traders who offer credit must have an OFT (Office of Fair Trading) licence, this deals with the method of calculating APR (Annual Percentage Rate) the form and content of the agreement, and lenders guidelines. When lending money, businesses much have interest rates clearly stated and cannot change them after you have signed up. The Data Protection Act means that any information stored by marketers must only be used for the purpose stated when collected, it must be accurate and up to date, not kept longer than the period of time stated, and obtained fairly and lawfully. It must be kept up to date as if someone passes away you should not call asking for them. Also your information is protected from unauthorised use, and cannot be passed on to other companies without your permission. The information stored is available for your inspection and correction upon your request. Voluntary codes A voluntary constraint is when a company voluntary says they will never do something or they will always do something. This could include signing a code of practice stating certain behaviours ethically, even though it cannot be legally enforced. The ASA (Advertising Standards Authority) overlook advertisements in the UK and have been controlling non-broadcast ads for nearly 50 years. They say adverts must be decent, legal, honest, and truthful. The ads online are also subject to these rules. Most companies sign up to the ASA and then on follow their rules, if the rules are broken they are not breaking the law but the ASA will publicise this and show everyone what has happened and what they have done. 2397 ads were changed or withdrawn in 2009 by the ASA. E. g. The advert, for the Ford Ka’s ‘Evil twin’ featured a pigeon-bashing four wheeler that brought the wrath of animal rights activists across the country, meaning the advert never even made it to air in the UK. Pressure groups and consumerism Pressure groups are groups of people who share the same interests in a business or product; these groups can persuade or force businesses to make changes to their products or services. E. g. cancer research focus on the particular smoking issue and attempt to reduce smoking. And Friends of the Earth are a multiple cause group who seek to influence the decisions made concerning the environment. Greenpeace seek to promote environmental issues to its members and supporters. Marketing must include promotion to get people intrested. Consumerism is ‘a social movement seeking to augment the rights of buyers in relation to sellers’ How to cite Business Unit 3 Constraints of Marketing, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Sport is a preserver of Health free essay sample

We get up every day at 6 am to get ready for school. We spend 6 hours sitting in uncomfortable desks. With the exception of two PE lessons a week, the limited exercise we receive is provided from walking to and fro between our classes. PE is not only about playing sport but develops many other factors that most do not think of. By making children participate in sports, especially team sports, physical education also imbibes in them a sense of team spirit. Children learn how to work as a team member, organize themselves and function together towards attaining a goal. This in turn improves a child’s overall communications skills and the ability to get along with different kinds of people. Physical education inculcates in children the importance of maintaining a healthy body and teaches them the importance of regular fitness activity in daily routine, which in turn keeps them happy and energized. We will write a custom essay sample on Sport is a preserver of Health or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This helps the children to maintain their fitness, develop their muscular strength and increase their stamina. Research has proved that children who actively participate in sports, be it team sports or dual and individual sports, have high self-confidence, which is very important for the development of a person’s character. Physical education instils the desire to participate, enjoy victory and take defeat positively, developing the overall personality of the character. Adding to that physical education helps one gain knowledge about the overall aspects of physical health. In today’s world, several health problems like obesity, anemia, bulimia, and even diabetes, are rampant amongst teenagers. Through physical education, teachers can promote the benefits of healthy and nutritious food and discourage them for having junk food by highlighting their ill effects. They can easily promote guidelines for nutrition. Physical education also teaches about the importance of personal hygiene and importance of cleanliness. They guide the students by informing them about the important hygiene practices for maintaining health and well being throughout the life. In addition to this, the physical education classes also cover an important aspect that the children have to deal with at the age of puberty. Apart from health and knowledge benefits that students get from physical education, they also learn how to unwind and relieve themselves of stress and anxiety. Sports and other physical fitness activities offered in the physical education classes are a welcome break for the students. With all the advantages mentioned above, it is clear, that the quote of Hippocrates â€Å"Sport is a preserver of health†, is true. A daily PE lesson would give the students a break from long school days to refocus, revive, and re-establish their learning ability. Physical Education should be a main class in every student’s schedule because it would make the school function better by making the general population more fit and focused by giving the students a break to allow them to get their concentration back. All the advantages mentioned above, are indicative of implementing a daily PE lesson. For students it is hard to get other sports activities into their schedules, which are packed with classes enduring the whole day. Therefore most students go to fitness centres, to get enough exercise, for these have late opening hours. Apart from this some students also are members of sports clubs to stay fit, or practice a certain sport. These are ways students get enough exercise but they are time consuming. So by adopting a daily PE lesson, students would have their exercise already combined into their schedules, and it wouldn’t be too hard for them to get enough exercise. In conclusion, physical education plays an indispensable role in promoting health, in instilling positive values and in exercising the mind. Therefore, bringing more PE lessons into the curriculum would certainly benefit the children who are the hope of the nation.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Albert Einstien essays

Albert Einstien essays There are a very large amount of smart and genius like people spread around the world. Although very smart they some times do not use their knowledge to their ability. Albert Einstein was an individual who many consider a genius, but many also question if he used that knowledge to the fullest of his ability, for example the creation of the atomic bomb was devastating when many found the power and destruction it caused. Although Einstein is dead many consider him a role- model and use his approach in the fields of science in an everyday manner. Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14, 1874. Before his first birthday, his family had moved to Munich where Alberts father, Hermann Einstein, and uncle set up a small electro-chemical business. Sources specify that Albert and his family had an extremely well developed relationship. Alberts mother, Pauline Einstein, had a very strong love for music and literature, and it was her who introduced and convinced Albert to play the Violin in which he found much joy and relaxation. Maja, Alberts younger sister had a strong bond with Albert and were often found playing with each other. As a child Einstein often was very curious, his favorite toy was a compass of his father, and he was often amazed by his uncles explanation of Algebra. Although Albert had a sense of curiosity he was considered slow mainly because his lack of speed to learn the German language fluently which lead many of Alberts teacher to classify him as a slow individual, many times called disabled. At ten Albert Einsteins education began at Luitpold Gymnasium where he found it very hard to adapt to the schools disciplinary policy, Alberts disapproval of the school method of teaching then made Albert look as if he was a misfit and a rebel. After Alberts lack of interest in an organized school Einstein then turned to educating himself, first in the fields of ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

4 questions to ask at the end of an interview

4 questions to ask at the end of an interview It’s game time- the interview is here. You prepped well. You aced the handshake, anticipated the questions they asked, and wowed them with your smooth, competent demeanor and relevant work anecdotes. Or maybe it wasn’t your best interview (it happens), and you need a way to salvage the whole thing. Either way, as the interview is wrapping up, it’s time to close strong. This is your chance to leave a valuable impression on your way out. At this point, most interviewers will open the floor to you by asking if you have any other questions. Before you simply shake hands and say â€Å"thank you for your time,† consider asking these four questions to finish strong. 1. â€Å"How would you describe the culture here in the office?†This question shows that you’re already thinking about how you can fit in and add value to this company. It also gives you an unofficial glimpse into what the company is like- information that you can’t necessarily ge t from online research. The interviewer is unlikely to tell you the â€Å"warts and all† version (after all, they brought you in because they may be inviting you to join the team and have no interest in scaring you away), but it’s a good way to get an initial feel for whether the job will truly be a good fit for you.2. â€Å"What’s been your favorite part about working for this company?†This engages the interviewer’s personal side, letting them give an opinion that isn’t necessarily based on the company motto or the job description. The answer can be even more revealing about the day-to-day life at the company than asking, â€Å"What’s the day-to-day like here?† For example, at one interview I asked this question and was pleasantly surprised to find out that once a month the company throws a pizza party for employees and holds regular events like employee bake-offs and craft fairs. That told me that the company valued employee morale, and was a deciding factor when I accepted the job. If the interviewer seems stumped by this question and has to think for a while before answering what he or she likes about the place, then†¦that may be a red flag, which is also good information to have.3. â€Å"What experience best prepared you for working here?†Again, this engages with the interviewer and gets them responding candidly without being too intrusive or personal. It shows that you’re invested in preparing for this job. It also tells you about the kinds of skills that will serve you best in this role, regardless of what’s in the job description. For example, if the interviewer tells you that working for a chaotic small company prepared her for the â€Å"all hands on deck† attitude of this place, it tells you that teamwork is prized here. You can respond by saying something like, â€Å"I thrive in that kind of atmosphere too. Working at a small mom-and-pop store taught me how val uable it is for everyone to pitch in to get the job done.†4. â€Å"How would you describe the leadership style here?†Up to this point, it’s likely that the interview was focused on the job itself and your qualifications. This question opens it up a bit and tells you more about the expectations of the company for this job- whether it’s a hands-on management kind of company (or potentially micromanaging), or a leadership style that relies on employees being more independent. It also tells the interviewer that you’re thinking about creating a productive, in-tune relationship with your potential manager.As with all interview questions, it’s important to read the flow of the interview. If you’ve covered any of these topics earlier, no need to rehash them at the end- it could look like you weren’t paying attention. But making sure you have a potential list of thoughtful, engaged questions ready to go will help you finish the interview in a polished, professional way.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Certified Aviation Manager Program Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Certified Aviation Manager Program - Essay Example This personal and corporate assurance is a first step into the responsibility of management, and is also serves as a guide to my future obligations to the industry. My goal of working as a department manager will necessitate that I prepare for this additional responsibility. A department manager is accountable to corporate interests as well as being responsible to their employee's concerns and needs. These may be the interactions that take place on a professional level between employees, or may involve the long-term corporate strategy of aviation scheduling or security. CAM Certification provides the foundation for insuring that the qualified manager has the breadth of education and experience required to operate in that capacity. It will assure that I not only have the scope of knowledge necessary, but will also provide me with the confidence that I have the most up to date information and state of the art methods available. The aviation industry is a rapidly changing landscape. Increased regulation, new technology, and heightened security concerns place a high demand on managers in aviation to demonstrate their capability to address many different issues. CAM Certification is a focal point where like minded aviation professionals can exchange ideas and remain current on the state of aviation.